Romanticism – definition and means of expression.
Romanticism is an artistic current, which from the end of the century. XVIII, and thus in parallel with the still omnipotent reign of classicism, began to penetrate into the literature, music and fine arts, to triumph in the years 1820-1850.
The full development of Romanticism falls on a historically extremely complicated period in European history, economic and social. The rapid enrichment of countries by new colonial conquests causes rapid development of industry and accumulation of capital; cities are growing as industrial and administrative centers; class contradictions between the bourgeoisie and the urban proletariat are piling up. In the 1930s, these contradictions found expression in the social liberation movements in France, Germany, England and in revolutionary uprisings, of which the uprising of the Lyon workers in. 1831.
The fundamental conflict is between the monarchist power allied with big capital and the working class, whose demands are supported by the progressive bourgeoisie and intelligentsia, speaking in the name of the republican liberties won by the great French Revolution.
In oppressed countries, deprived of national independence, revolutionary ideas take the form of national liberation struggles, which were expressed in. in. Polish November and January Uprisings, and in the forties,. Spring of Nations.
All these events are accompanied by the progressive thought of the creative intelligentsia. Literary works with a strong ideological and political commitment are created, like the works of Mickiewicz. Victor Hugo, Stendhala; compositions by Beethoven and Chopin are composed, u in art patriotic paintings of Goya, Delacroix's revolutionary canvases, as well as politically passionate lithographs by Daumier.
All the great artists of that time are aware of the importance of art in the transformations of their contemporary world, its irreplaceable role in the turbulent life of societies. Their works are up-to-date, they react almost directly to political ideological slogans and current events.
The importance of the matters necessitated a strong personal commitment. Classical coolness, reason and seriousness give way to feeling, impulses of the spirit, emotions, the need for a strong one, and above all personal expression. The word "inspiration" appears. The art of this era is therefore not only emotional art, but also individualistic, born of personal inspiration. In a work of art, ideologically involved, at the same time it expresses the general pathos of this epoch, proper and personal, unique feeling of the creator. The artist wants to express not only the spirit of the era, but most of all, he wants to express himself, your rich feelings, your experiences. He also wants to mark his presence in the course of life and events as a member of the human community and as a creative individual, independent - as an individual.
Under the influence of new tendencies, the unshakable rules of the art of classicism fall - a new form is born, corresponding to the new demands of the era.
How classicism looked for inspiration in antiquity, so Romanticism drew them from native national elements, from the history of the nation, from the art of the people. Folklore enters literature, music and fine arts. In the Romantic works of art by artists of different nationalities we find some common formal features. Each nation, however, saturates its works with a separate and own content, which allows us to talk about national art.
Alongside the ideological and artistic trend, which we might call revolutionary romanticism, there is a second, the trend of romanticism
with conservative features. The place of revolutionary pathos and creative inspiration is taken by mysticism, sentimental emotionality and the desire to escape into the world of chivalry, the legendary Middle Ages, into the world of picturesque Gothic castles, where the songs of the troubadours resounded in the courtyards. This is how Romanticism was understood by representatives of the feudal class, coming down from the historical audience. For them it was painted moody, sentimental landscapes, residences were built for them, imitating Gothic castles as faithfully as possible.
In the visual arts of the era of classicism, despite the importance of painting, sculpture, however, played a leading role. In the 19th century, starting with Romanticism, painting takes the lead. The new ideological and artistic content causes a radical change in its formal elements. The emotional involvement of the artists in the scenes and events depicted in the paintings forces them to look for the most expressive means. The composition of the images becomes freer, the classical staticity of vertical and horizontal layouts gives way to dynamics through the widespread use of diagonal lines; sketchy, the quick painting technique perpetuates the sweeping, lively brushstroke, which blurs the contour lines of figures and objects in the image; the colors become vivid and more boldly combined, and the sharp contrasts of light and shadow deepen the drama of the performances.