Examples of neoclassical architecture of the second phase and later periods.
In the second phase of its development, European classicism assumes a full and mature form, faithful almost blindly to Roman and Greek models, of which Winckelmann reminded us so emphatically. Built by the architect PIERRE VIGNON (1763—1828) church of St. Madeleine in Paris, based on a rectangular plan with rows of columns circling it, which support a tympanum with a figural scene at the façade, refers to the Greek peripter (rectangular temple surrounded by a colonnade). The most perfect example of this type of temple was the Athenian Parthenon.
The buildings of Russia receive a particularly rich architectural form in this second phase of classicism, erected mainly in St. Petersburg, but also in Moscow. The tsars finally. The eighteenth century supported classicism as a style, which, through its monumentality and sublimity, perfectly presented the power of power, however, in the buildings of that time, classicistic features are still present in accordance with the remains of the baroque. Only the beginning of the 19th century brought classicism in its pure form to Russia, mainly from Greece, as evidenced by the building of the Mining Academy, built in Saint Petersburg in. 1811 by ANDREI VORONICHIN (1759—1814), decorated with a pediment with a triangular top supported by twelve Doric columns. A modern tourist visiting Leningrad easily finds classicism both in the numerous buildings erected in the times of Catherine II and Alexander I, and much later buildings, erected after the Great October Revolution until the 1950s, When is it, after the recognition of classicism as the Russian national style, built according to classical principles, raw, colonnaded buildings, mainly public buildings.
In Poland, the second phase of classicism after a year 1800 it gave the opportunity to distinguish some great architects, led by JAKUB KUBICKI (1758—1833). He is the creator of a number of landowners' mansions, built in the province (in Białaczewo, province. Piotrkowski, in Bejsce, province. Kielce), extremely economical in their architectural form and decoration: the only simple decoration, of the geometric body is a columned portico topped with a pediment. Kubicki's most famous work today, also solved as a mansion with a portico (and added two wings of outbuildings), is built in. 1819 Warsaw Belvedere, currently the seat of the President of the State. The type of Polish court developed by Kubicki was repeated many times in the 19th century. on a more modest scale. In our imagination, supported by examples of Polish literature, gentry-Polish hospitality is expressed by the form of greeting the guest on the columnar, classicist porch.
Polish architecture of that time features several central buildings characteristic of classicism (round), which we mentioned at the outset. An early example of this is the Evangelical Church in Warsaw discussed above, built by Zug. Built by Piotr Aigner (1760—1841) in the years 1800—1803, the Temple of the Sibyl in Puławy is almost a copy, albeit much more modest, Roman Pantheon. The same architect in the years 1818—1826 builds the Church of St. Alexander at Trzech Krzyży Square, whose architectural form consists of a rotunda covered with a dome with two prominent risalits from the north and from the south. this work, after unfortunate reconstructions in the 19th century. and destruction during the Second World War, during the post-war reconstruction, it returned to its former state.
Projection - part of the building protruding from the face of the wall.
In the discussed second phase of classicism, European architects, apart from public buildings, erect buildings that do not have any specific utility function. The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin and the two triumphal arches in Paris are modeled on the Roman Triumphal Arch: on the Place du Carrousel near the Louvre, built by architect Pierre Fontana (1787—1858) i na Place de l'Etoile (Star Square), built by François Chalgrin (1739—1811), already known to us as the author of the Odeon theater in Paris. Roman Column of Trajan from the 2nd century. n.e. instead, it served as a model for the architect Jean Baptiste Lepere (1761—1844), creators of the Vendóme Column in Paris with a statue of Napoleon on top, which was demolished during the Paris Commune.
Some monumental works of late classicism from the imperial period (time of Napoleon I) belongs to the so-called. empire style ("empire" style). You can mention here both the aforementioned Arc de Triomphe, like the church of St. Magdalena. A characteristic feature of Empire buildings are ornaments enriched with Egyptian motifs (influence of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt), such as sphinxes and lions, poza tym lyry, lictor's rods, etc., sometimes the letter "N", symbolizing the name "Napoleon".
The trend of classicism continues and reaches quite far into the 19th century. In Poland, an example of the late phase of this style is the work of ANTONI CORAZZI (1792—1877), Italian by origin, by taste - Varsovian. Many buildings in Warsaw are the work of Corazzi: Staszyc Palace in Krakowskie Przedmieście, building of the former Revenue and Treasury Committee (today the City Hall of Warsaw) and the Grand Theater on pl. A theatrical building with a long colonnade and straight lines, characteristic of classicism, symmetrical architectural divisions.
He was in Poland, moment, when the architecture of classicism was recognized as our national style, by all means worthy of imitation. MDM, for example, was built in this spirit in Warsaw, with the use of a crowning balustrade, vertical divisions in the form of pilasters, etc.