NEOGOTHIC AND ECLECTISM.
In architecture, classicism was the last style with its own artistic expression in the 19th century. Architects, creators of classicist buildings, although they imitated ancient patterns, they did it with full respect for the properties of the material and understanding the ancient logic of construction. This allowed them to create works of individual character, unique expression. Of the countless examples, let one suffice: Warsaw's Palace on the Water in Łazienki Park by Dominik Merlini and Jan Baptist Kamsetzer. Although built in the spirit of classical architecture; he does not imitate her blindly, on the contrary, it develops the artistic possibilities it contains.
The history of architecture in the 19th century runs along different tracks. On the one hand, a romantic interest in the past, especially in the Middle Ages, brings a return to Gothic architecture, creating the so-called. neo-gothic. Neo-Gothic will open the way to the widespread imitation of other historical styles, especially Renaissance and Baroque. This fashion for imitation will be called eclecticism, from the Greek word eklektikós - choosing, in the sense of "selecting" forms and ornaments from the stock of old styles to repeat them in new buildings, often without a deeper analysis of the material and the related design principles.
Neo-Gothic was used primarily - but not exclusively - in church architecture, mainly in England, France, Germany and in Poland.
This current first appeared in England, because in the middle of the eighteenth century. The leading neo-Gothic work of the later phase is the Parliament building in London, designed by architect Charles Barry (1795—1860). In France, Eugene Viollet-Le-Duc was an enthusiast of Gothic architecture (1782—1867), reconstructing buildings in the spirit of this new trend.
In Germany, Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781—1841), formerly an excellent and faithful representative of classicism, designs several neo-gothic buildings, among them the church in Berlin, in which it combines the simplicity and purity of the Romanesque body with decorative elements of the Gothic style (pointed arches in the windows and portal, maswerki1 etc.).
In Poland - as everywhere in Europe - neo-gothic accompanies classicism, late classicism (neoclassicism) and romanticism. It happens, the same architects, who owed their fame to great classicist buildings, built neo-gothic buildings. We know Piotr Aigner, creator of the classicist Temple of the Sibyl in Puławy and the same church of St. Aleksandra in Warsaw, also builds approx. 1800 r. Gothic House in Puławy. Peers of the great classicist Antoni Corazzi, also known to us: HENRIK MARCONI (1792—1863) and FRANCIS MARIA LANCI (1799—1875), they design a number of buildings in the neo-gothic spirit. M. in. In 1822—23, Henryk Marconi built the famous neo-gothic palace in Dowspuda, and Lance so-called. The "Golden Chapel" at the Poznań Cathedral (1836).