Main features of neoclassical architecture.
The builders of the era of classicism draw examples for their designs from two sources: from Roman and Greek architecture of the classical period and from the works of the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio (1508—1580), whose so-called. Villa Rotunda ("Round") at Vicenza (1550), built on a central plan and decorated with columned porticoes, argued about the possibility of creative use of ancient patterns in the modern era.
The most characteristic features of the classicist building are:: simplicity and symmetry of shape, forward porticos with a colonnade topped with a tympanum at the top, simple vertical divisions of the walls with pilasters, sometimes a colonnade running around the building (so-called. perypt). Central buildings (round) they also have two or four columned porticoes or a wreath of columns all around (so-called. monopter) and are usually covered with a dome on the drum.
Buildings of the mentioned types from the second half of the century. eighteenth century until far into the nineteenth century multiplied in many countries of Europe and America, giving a kind of imprint to the fast-growing cities of that century, especially the capitals of France, Polish, Italian, England, German, Russia, Belgium.